Monday, June 19, 2017

Saturday, June 17, 2017

Brooklin Museum, New York, USA (Part 1)

The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet, the museum is New York City's third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with roughly 1.5 million works.

Located near the Prospect Heights, Crown Heights, Flatbush, and Park Slope neighborhoods of Brooklyn and founded in 1895, the Beaux-Arts building, designed by McKim, Mead and White, was planned to be the largest art museum in the world. The museum initially struggled to maintain its building and collection, only to be revitalized in the late 20th century, thanks to major renovations. Significant areas of the collection include antiquities, specifically their collection of Egyptian antiquities spanning over 3,000 years. African, Oceanic, and Japanese art make for notable antiquities collections as well. American art is heavily represented, starting at the Colonial period.

The roots of the Brooklyn Museum extend back to the 1823 founding by Augustus Graham of the Brooklyn Apprentices’ Library in Brooklyn Heights. The Library moved into the Brooklyn Lyceum building on Washington Street in 1841. Two years later the institutions merged to form the Brooklyn Institute, which offered exhibitions of painting and sculpture and lectures on diverse subjects. In 1890, under its director Franklin Hooper, Institute leaders reorganized as the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and began planning the Brooklyn Museum.

The Museum remained a subdivision of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, along with the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, and the Brooklyn Children's Museum until the 1970s when all became independent. Opened in 1897, the Brooklyn Museum building is a steel frame structure encased in classical masonry, designed by the famous architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White and built by the Carlin Construction Company. The initial design for the Brooklyn Museum was four times as large as the actualized version; actualized plans reflect a compromise to the specifications of the New York City government.

 Daniel Chester French, the noted sculptor of the Lincoln Memorial, was the principal designer of the pediment sculptures and the monolithic 12.5-foot (3.8 m) figures along the cornice. The figures were created by 11 sculptors and carved by the Piccirilli Brothers. French also designed the two allegorical figures Brooklyn and Manhattan currently flanking the museum's entrance, created in 1916 for the Brooklyn approach to the Manhattan Bridge, relocated to the museum in 1963.

 By 1920, the New York City Subway reached the museum with a subway station; this greatly improved access to the once-isolated museum from Manhattan and other outer boroughs. The Brooklyn Institute's director Franklin Hooper was the museum's first director, succeeded by William Henry Fox who served from 1914 to 1934. He was followed by Philip Newell Youtz (1934–1938), Laurance Page Roberts (1939–1946), Isabel Spaulding Roberts (1943–1946), Charles Nagel, Jr. (1946–1955), and Edgar Craig Schenck (1955–1959).

Thomas S. Buechner became the museum's director in 1960, making him one of the youngest directors in the country. Buechner oversaw a major transformation in the way the museum displayed art and brought some one thousand works that had languished in the museum's archives and put them on display. Buechner played a pivotal role in rescuing the Daniel Chester French sculptures from destruction due to an expansion project at the Manhattan Bridge in the 1960s.

 Duncan F. Cameron held the post from 1971 to 1973, with Michael Botwinick succeeding him (1974–1982) and Linda S. Ferber acting director for part of 1983 until Robert T. Buck became director in 1983 and served until 1996. The Brooklyn Museum changed its name to Brooklyn Museum of Art in 1997, shortly before the start of Arnold L. Lehman's term as director. On March 12, 2004, the museum announced that it would revert to its previous name. In April 2004, the museum opened the James Polshek-designed entrance pavilion on the Eastern Parkway façade.[6] In September 2014, Lehman announced that he was planning to retire around June 2015.

 In May 2015, Creative Time president and artistic director Anne Pasternak was named the Museum's next director; she assumed the position on September 1, 2015

The Brooklyn Museum, along with numerous other New York institutions, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the American Museum of Natural History, and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, is part of the Cultural Institutions Group (CIG). Member institutions occupy land or buildings owned by the City of New York and derive part of their yearly funding from the City. The Brooklyn Museum also supplements its earned income with funding from Federal and State governments, as well as with donations by individuals and organizations.

In 1999, the museum hosted the Charles Saatchi exhibition Sensation, resulting in a court battle over New York City's municipal funding of institutions exhibiting controversial art, eventually decided in favor of the museum on First Amendment grounds.

In 2005, the museum was among 406 New York City arts and social service institutions to receive part of a $20 million grant from the Carnegie Corporation, made possible through a donation by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg.

Major benefactors include Frank Lusk Babbott.
The museum is the site of the annual Brooklyn Artists Ball which has included celebrity hosts such as Sarah Jessica Parker and Liv Tyler

American Art

The museum's collection of American art dates its first bequest of Francis Guy's Winter Scene in Brooklyn in 1846. In 1855, the museum officially designated a collection of American Art, with the first work commissioned for the collection being a landscape painting by Asher B. Durand. Items in the American Art collection include portraits, pastels, sculptures, and prints; all items in the collection date to between c. 1720 and c. 1945.

Represented in the American Art collection are works by artists such as William Edmondson (Angel, date unknown), John Singer Sargent's Paul César Helleu sketching his wife Alice Guérin (ca. 1889); Georgia O'Keeffe's Dark Tree Trunks (ca. 1946), and Winslow Homer's Eight Bells (ca. 1887). Among the most famous works in the collection are Gilbert Stuart's portrait of George Washington and Edward Hicks's The Peaceable Kingdom. The Museum also holds a collection by Emil Fuchs.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art New York USA

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially "the Met," is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world.

 The wings that completed the Fifth Avenue facade in the 1910s were designed by the firm of McKim, Mead & White. The modernistic glass sides and rear of the museum are the work of Roche-Dinkeloo. Kevin Roche has been the architect for the master plan and expansion of the museum for the past 42 years. He is responsible for designing all of its new wings and renovations including but not limited to the American Wing, Greek and Roman Court, and recently opened Islamic Wing.

As of 2010, the Met measures almost 14-mile (400 m) long and with more than 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of floor space, more than 20 times the size of the original 1880 building.

The museum building is an accretion of over 20 structures, most of which are not visible from the exterior.

The City of New York owns the museum building and contributes utilities, heat, and some of the cost of guardianship.

The Charles Engelhard Court of the American Wing features the facade of the Branch Bank of the United States, a Wall Street bank that was facing demolition in 1913.

Although the City of New York owns the museum building and contributes utilities, heat, and some of the cost of guardianship, the collections are owned by a private corporation of fellows and benefactors which totals about 950 persons. 

The museum is governed by a board of trustees of 41 elected members, several officials of the City of New York, and persons honored as trustees by the museum. The current chairman of the board, Daniel Brodsky was elected in 2011

 Its permanent collection contains over two million works.

The permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt, paintings and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, Indian, and Islamic art.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue.

The Met's permanent collection is curated by seventeen separate departments, each with a specialized staff of curators and scholars, as well as six dedicated conservation departments and a Department of Scientific Research.

Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started to acquire ancient art and artifacts from the Near East. From a few cuneiform tablets and seals, the Met's collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. Representing a history of the region beginning in the Neolithic Period and encompassing the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the end of Late Antiquity, the collection includes works from the Sumerian, Hittite, Sasanian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Elamite cultures (among others), as well as an extensive collection of unique Bronze Age objects. The highlights of the collection include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures, from the Northwest Palace of the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II.

The Met's collection of Greek and Roman art contains more than 17,000 objects.

The museum first opened on February 20, 1872, housed in a building located at 681 Fifth Avenue.

John Taylor Johnston, a railroad executive whose personal art collection seeded the museum, served as its first president, and the publisher George Palmer Putnam came on board as its founding superintendent. The artist Eastman Johnson acted as co-founder of the museum.Various other industrialists of the age served as co-founders, including Howard Potter. The former Civil War officer, Luigi Palma di Cesnola, was named as its first director. He served from 1879 to 1904.

Under their guidance, the Met's holdings, initially consisting of a Roman stone sarcophagus and 174 mostly European paintings, quickly outgrew the available space.

In 1873, occasioned by the Met's purchase of the Cesnola Collection of Cypriot antiquities, the museum decamped from Fifth Avenue and took up residence at the Mrs. Nicholas Cruger Mansion also known as the Douglas Mansion (James Renwick, 1853–54, demolished) at 128 West 14th Street. However, these new accommodations proved temporary, as the growing collection required more space than the mansion could provide.

As of 2017, the museum's endowment ( endowment  is a donation of money or property to a nonprofit organization for the ongoing support of that organization.) is $2.5 billion which provides much of the income for operations while admissions account for only 13 percent of revenue as of fiscal 2016, down from 16 percent the year before.

The 2009–10 operating budget was $221 million. Although the museum recommends an admission price of $25, visitors can pay what they wish to enter.

According to the Met's annual tax filing for fiscal year 2016, several top executives had received disproportionately high compensation, often exceeding 1M USD per annum with over 100K USD bonuses per annum.

In April 2017, the New York Times reported that the Met's annual debt was approaching $40 million, in addition to an outstanding museum bond for $250 million. This resulted in the indefinite postponement of a planned $600 million expansion of the museum's modern art collection as well as started a general discussion over the Met's human resources management.

In 2016, the museum set a record for attendance, attracting 6.7 million visitors — the highest number since the museum began tracking admissions.

Forty percent of the Met's visitors in fiscal year 2016 came from New York City and the tristate area; 41 percent from 190 countries besides the United States.

Some of the less-visited wings hold some amazing surprises—from a replica of a Ming Dynasty courtyard to the façade of a bank rescued from destruction.

The Temple of Dendur

Dating back to the time of Augustus Caesar, circa 15 BC, the Temple of Dendur was a gift from Egypt to the United States in 1965. The most stunning work in the Met’s Egyptian collection, the temple occupies the bright and airy Sackler Wing, which has large skylights that illuminate the space and a pool of water meant to evoke the Nile. Up close, you can see ancient carvings and hieroglyphics on the temple's surface.

The Petrie Sculpture Court

Majestic full-body sculptures greet visitors to this European sculpture area. When you enter you can still see a wall of the original brick building by Vaux and Mould. The sculpture court features European masterpieces in marble and bronze, including works by Bernini, Canova and Rodin. Several of the statues were originally displayed in palace gardens around the world.

Beaux-arts bronze lampposts

Richard Morris Hunt designed the first major addition to the Metropolitan Museum, which includes the Great Hall, the Grand Staircase, and the Beaux-Arts façade on Fifth Avenue (though Hunt didn’t live to see construction on the façade completed). He also designed the bronze Beaux-Arts lampposts, which you might mistake for French lampposts. They highlight the European influences on 19th and early 20th century American art.

Staircase from the Chicago Stock Exchange

Another unique decorative element that has made its way into the architecture of the Metropolitan Museum of Art is a pair of Louis Sullivan staircases that connect the first and second floors of the Engelhard Court. Sullivan was the leader of the Chicago school of architects and these copper-plated staircases decorated with natural and geometric motifs show his mature style. They were rescued from the Chicago Stock Exchange when it was razed in 1972.

Impossible statues

Check the images to see some impossible sculptures in marble that are extremely hard to reproduce. 

Sunday, June 11, 2017

Lagoon City Brechin

The 1600 acres which today make up Lagoon City Resort were previously unusable swampland. Roughly 400 years ago the surrounding area was occupied by the Indians of the Huron Nation whose capital, Cahiague, was located a few miles north of Lagoon City near what is currently the town of Warminster. At that time, the population of the Huron people exceeded 20,000 and was believed to be the largest concentration of Indians in all of North America.

The man behind the idea of Lagoon City as a canal-based, vacation-at-home retirement community was Hungarian engineer Andrew Zsolt. The idea was first floated in the mid 1960's when investors / develop[ers were being courted to make the project a reality. Construction got under way in the seventies, with a plan for a community of 26,000. Today the estimated population is around 2,600 and given the environmental restrictions on waterfront development now in place, it is unlikely to grow much larger. Nevertheless, Lagoon City is a thriving lake / canal side community where every home has a dock and lake access through the network of canals that form the nucleus of the community.

Lagoon City is primarily a retirement / recreational community with about half of the residents living here year round. There are restaurants, variety stores, several marinas, tenis courts and a busy community centre.
In order to get to the rich fishing areas of Lake Simcoe, the people of the Huron villages east of the Lagoon City site traversed along the top of a ridge which cut through the low property. 

For many years this path was known to the local farmers and people of Mara Township as Old Indian Trail. Today, part of Old Indian Trail is used for hiking and cross-country skiing by the Resort’s residents and the other part forms one of Lagoon City’s oldest streets which lies on a section of the original trail. The first white man to set foot on what is today Lagoon City, was Samuel de Champlain. 
In September of 1615, Champlain led an army of 500 Huron warriors to battle the Iroquois. The war party left Cahiague and canoed south through the narrows where Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching meet. Travelling south along the north-east shore of Lake Simcoe they arrived at the Lagoon City area and portaged directly east, about 40 kilometres to what is today Sturgeon Lake. Champlain and his party then traveled through the Kawarthas to Lake Ontario. Through the centuries the Lagoon City site remained unfarmable, unusable, and for the most part unpenetrable to the local settlers. 
The small amount of cottage development which took place on the shoreline north and south of the site during the 1900’s proved only to exacerbate the problem as the natural drainage routes to the lake were cut off by the cottage roads. 
5000 feet of shore and thousands of acres of flooded lowlands remained undeveloped and useless. 

In 1962, Andrew Zsolt, a young civil engineer who ran a small development company, came upon the Lagoon City site. Given its sandy shoreline, Zsolt saw potential in developing the area into a resort town with a protected harbour, similar to those he had enjoyed in Hungary as a student. 

That year he optioned to buy rwo shoreline properties from the owners, August Geisberger and Abraham Katz. Zsolt was convinced that Ontario needed a major, pre-planned resort town in the European tradition. 
He envisaged a stimulating community with a choice of accommodations, elegant restaurants, attractive beaches, superb water sports, colourful dinner theatres, nightclubs, and activities for a variety of tastes. He foresaw a resort town that could accommodate these various features, and that would ultimately become a popular destination resort on an international scale. Zsolt conceived and designed a resort town concept in 1962. 
In 1963 he formed Lagoon City Developments Limited (which was subsequently merged with Zsolt’s Inducon Development Corporation). The company purchased these properties with 5,000 feet of shoreline and about 1,000 acres of land, which was subsequently expanded to 1,600 acres. He submitted his first draft plan to the Ontario Department of Municipal Affairs in 1963 for the 1,000 acre community to be known as "Lagoon City". 
The Lagoon City town concept was revolutionary for several reasons: *Rather than proposing a strip beach-front development, all of the 5,000 feet of sandy Lake Simcoe shoreline were reserved as a private community beach park for the use of all the residents and guests of Lagoon City; *The plan called for the excavation of over 12 miles of waterways through the swamp which provided the needed fill for the project; *The waterways provided lake access and protected dockage at the backyard of every house. 
Although the plan raised many objections and concerns initially, the concept of using wasteland rather than prime agricultural land for development and making private community beach park available for the whole community, instead of a chosen few, became Ontario government guidelines for resort development several years later. In 1963, prior to formal approvals, 50 acres of brush were cleared and about 3,000 feet of navigable inland waterways were dug, including the first harbour.
 The original "Lake Avenue" was extended to make up a leg of Lagoon City’s first road, Poplar Crescent. It crossed the Harbour Lagoon at Mara Township’s 5th Concession, where the first building was erected. This motel style building, completed on Labour Day of 1963, contained 12 small residential units which were used initially as summer rental units and later sold as condominiums. 
The following summer, in 1964, a second building was erected on the south side of the harbour, the Lagoon City Marina (today the site of the Harbour Inn). 

Five mahogany sailboats were purchased and the Lagoon City Yacht Club was formed. Work continued…..digging lagoons, building roads, cleaning up the shoreline and the sandy beach. In 1965, the Ontario Municipal Board ruled in favour of the project and its waterways. Phase I was approved for registration in four sub-phases over the following 7 years. 
This released for development 186 single-family lots, and 6 multiple-residential lots for 110 dwelling units. Thus began the long and painstaking construction of the sewer and water services throughout Phase I and ultimately through the whole resort project. 

Efforts reached a milestone in the summer of 1971 with the completion of the water filtration and sewage disposal plants, both built and operated for Lagoon City by the developer, Inducon Development Corporation. With the construction of Laguna Parkway, the Poplar Crescent causeway extension over the Harbour Lagoon was removed, linking miles of waterways and homesites directly with Lake Simcoe and the Trent-Severn System. 

The original harbour entrance built in 1963 was taken over by the Federal Department of Works in 1973. At that time, the Federal Government upgraded the harbour entrance by building up and extending the berms past the sandbars, and digging out the entrance way between the berms. 
The expenditures by the Federal Government of about $270,000 were matched by Inducon on improvements inland to accommodate the boating public. Subsequently, over 8 miles of navigable waterways and numerous bridges were completed in Lagoon City. In the 70’s, with Phase I sold out and the newly opened harbour entrance in place, the project began to hit its stride. Ontario’s new Condominium Act allowed for the registration and sale of the original "motel" units, which became the building block for the Harbour Village project. 
This complex became the first resort condominium project in Ontario. Completed in 3 phases during the summers of 1973, 1974, and 1976, Harbour Village has over 100 condominium units. Also in 1974, Phase II of Lagoon City was approved by the Ontario Municipal Board, bringing the total number of single-family dwelling lots to over 450, and adding 12 more condominium project sites. 
In 1977, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment purchased the Lagoon City water filtration plant and existing piping from Inducon in order to extend the water mains to service the adjacent village of Brechin.  

This program involved a substantial enlargement of the Lagoon City waterworks to meet future demands of the surrounding region. For Phase II, Lagoon City’s sewage treatment plant was also upgraded, expanded, and relocated in 1978 to handle the increased demand. The Harbour Inn and Resort Club, completed in the summer of 1979, proved to be Lagoon City’s most important single project up until that time. 

This was Canada’s first, and Ontario’s most successful, timeshare ownership resort. In 1981, 18 years after the initial application, the second Official Plan for the region was approved by the Province and Lagoon City received official status as an Urban Resort Town-site, the only one in Ontario, (Whistler, B.C. being the only other in Canada), with a projected permanent population of 10,000 people. 

The approval helped open the door for the Township of Mara Council to exercise a more positive supporting role towards the development of Lagoon City. Responding to the continued demand for waterfront condominiums, in 1982 the first condominium project of Phase II, Pinetree Villas, was built on Laguna Parkway by Inducon, followed by Canada’s first segmented ownership project, Chateau Genevieve. 

Besides the unique concept, the project’s design and layout were also new for Lagoon City. As Lagoon City’s Community Association and the Yacht Club grew, it became apparent that a large permanent facility would be required to house these two very active groups. Simultaneously, Inducon’s sales and administrative staff were outgrowing their facilities. 

This prompted the creation of the Lagoon City Resort Centre in 1984. This multi-purpose complex located at the resort’s busiest intersection, Polar Crescent and Laguna Parkway, became the permanent home for the Community Association, the Yacht Club, and the resort’s sales group. 

Three years later, in the summer of 1987, the Laguna Shores Mews was built directly across the street from the Resort Centre. This shopping mall offered goods and services at the hub of the resort, which previously were only available in Brechin or Orillia. On November 4, 1986, "The Township Of Mara Act" received Royal Assent in the Ontario Legislature. This Act created the "Lagoon City Parks and Waterways Commission" which, with the Township, were given the power to acquire the private beach parks, waterways, and footbridges in trust and to manage, maintain, and regulate these properties, including shore walls. 

The Act also gave the Commission and the Township the taxing power to apportion the cost of maintenance among the properties benefiting from it. This Act created a unique precedent for Canada and for the resort development industry. It also insured the perpetual ownership and maintenance of the waterways, shore walls, and private community beach parks, and secured the property values in this unique setting for years to come. Lagoon City’s waterways, beaches, and numerous facilities had always attracted many outside boaters. 
And the resort’s harbour became the most popular transient port on Lake Simcoe. During the 80’s the interest in boating, especially power-boating, surged. These two phenomena set the stage for Lagoon City’s most significant and consequential development - the creation of a world-class, luxury marine center. 

Upon its completion in 1987, the Lagoon City Marine Centre was quickly recognized throughout the boating industry as Ontario’s finest and most elegant full-service marina and became the focal point of the entire resort. 

Since 1987, Inducon could barely keep up with the demand for waterfront resort condominiums and properties. 

All remaining lots from Phase II were quickly sold. In 1987, the first phase of the Laguna Shores Condominiums was introduced and completely sold before breaking ground. This started a new trend in Lagoon City of pre-selling condominium projects before construction commenced. In 1988, all 5 phases of Laguna Shores had been sold. 

That year Lagoon City’s most exclusive project, Marine Cove Villas, part of Lagoon City’s Marine Village, was introduced and sold out. In the Fall of 1988, the designs of 4 entirely new resort condominium projects were unveiled at Lagoon City. Woodland Shores Condominiums, Leeward Cove Villas, Chateau Simone, and Marina Quay represented an unprecedented offering of resort homes. 

After 25 years of building, the project was still only about one-third complete with over 1000 acres of lakefront property remaining and Lagoon City Resort was well on its way to becoming Canada’s world-class waterfront resort town. 


Ramara was formed in 1994 through the amalgamation of the townships of Rama and Mara. The municipality stretches along the northeastern shore of Lake Simcoe from Gamebridge to Orillia, and along the entire eastern shore of Lake Couchiching from Orillia to Washago

The township comprises the communities of Atherley, Bayshore Village, Bayview Beach, Bonnie Beach, Brechin, Brechin Beach, Brechin Point, Concord Point, Cooper's Falls, Fawkham, Floral Park, Fountain Beach, Gamebridge, Gamebridge Beach, Geneva Park, Glenrest Beach, Grays Bay, Floral Park, Hopkins Bay, Joyland Beach, Lagoon City, Lakeview Beach, Little Falls, Longford Mills, Mara Beach, Mariposa Beach, McDonald Beach, Millington (ghost town), Murphy Beach, New Gamebridge Beach, Oaklawn Beach, O'Connell, Orkney Point, Orkney Beach, Paradise Point, Point of Mara Beach, Prophet Beach, Rathburn, Riverside Beach, Sandy Beach, Sandy Pine Beach, Southview Cove, Talbot, Tanglewood Beach, Udney, Uptergrove, Val Harbour and Washago.

Brechin is one of the townships largest communities. It is known for its several local businesses such as a Coffee Time and a Statue Store. The town has all the necessities of a small town, such as a Foodland, LCBO, Legion, Ultramar, schools and churches. The town is also a central meeting location for the area's youth where they partake in numerous recreational activity involving the town's proximity to the lake.

 The former townships of Rama and Mara were first named in 1820. The origins of the names are unclear, as both may be either Spanish words (rama for "branch" and mara for "sea") or Biblical references (rama for Ramah, the biblical town of Benjamin in ancient Israel, and mara for Marah, named in the biblical Book of Exodus as the place where Moses sweetened the bitter waters for the Israelites.)


The townships were originally part of York County, but were transferred to Ontario County when they were first incorporated as an amalgamated municipality in 1852. They were later reincorporated as separate municipalities in 1869.

A portion of Rama Township was allocated to form what became the Mnjikaning First Nation 32 Indian reserve of the Chippewas of Mnjikaning First Nation. Many natives were living on the narrow strip of land that separates lakes Simcoe and Couchiching between Atherley and Orillia.

These lands were surrendered by treaty in 1836.?????? After that time, the local Indian Agent began purchasing lands in Rama Township and the natives were relocated there. The main settlement on the reserve is also known as Rama and is the site of Casino Rama.

North of Rama, the community of Longford Mills was established in 1868. In 1867 American lumberman Henry W. Sage had purchased blocks of land in Rama Township after buying timber berths in Oakley Township in Muskoka District. Sage had considered relocating his mill from Bell Ewart to a point between the Black River and Lake Couchiching, or possibly at Wasdell Falls.

This area lacked rail transport, so the sawn lumber would have to be barged to the Northern Railway at Bell Ewart. Instead, Sage came up with the idea of a canal to float logs from the Black River to supply the mills of Lake Simcoe. The Rama Timber Transport Company was formed in 1868.

Not only did it allow the logs of Muskoka and Victoria reach the mills of Lake Simcoe, but helped establish the community of Longford Mills.

Ontario County was dissolved upon the formation of the Regional Municipality of Durham in 1974, and both townships were transferred to Simcoe County. As part of the municipal restructuring of Simcoe County, Mara and Rama Townships were reamalgamated to form Ramara in 1994.


Wednesday, June 7, 2017

Toronto Buildings, Old City Hall, Old Court House, 60 Queen St W, Toronto, ON M5H 2M3

Toronto's Old City Hall was one of the largest buildings in Toronto and the largest civic building in North America upon completion in 1899. It was the burgeoning city's third city hall. It housed Toronto's municipal government and courts for York County and Toronto, taking over from the Adelaide Street Court House. York County offices were also located in Old City Hall from 1900 to 1953. With the establishment of Metropolitan Toronto, the county seat moved to Newmarket, Ontario (and to the Old Newmarket Town Hall and Courthouse)

 Designed by prominent Toronto architect Edward James Lennox, the building took more than a decade to build and cost more than $2.5 million (equals close to 53 million today). Work on the building began in 1889 and was built on the site of old York buildings including the Lennox hotel.
 The Old City Hall is a Romanesque civic building and court house in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was the home of the Toronto City Council from 1899 to 1966 and remains one of the city's most prominent structures.
 The building is located at the corner of Queen and Bay Streets, across Bay Street from Nathan Phillips Square and the present City Hall in the Downtown Toronto. The heritage landmark has a distinctive clock tower which heads the length of Bay Street from Front Street to Queen Street as a terminating vista. Old City Hall was designated a National Historic Site in 1984.

It was constructed of sandstone from the Credit River valley, grey stone from the Orangeville, Ontario area, and brown stone from New Brunswick.

Angry councillors, due to cost overruns and construction delays, refused E.J. Lennox a plaque proclaiming him as architect for the completed building in 1899. Not to be denied, Lennox had stonemasons "sign" his name in corbels beneath the upper floor eaves around the entire building: "EJ LENNOX ARCHITECT AD 1898".

An annex to this building, Manning Chambers, was built by Lennox at the northwest corner of Bay and Queen Street. Completed in 1900, the 5 storey building was later demolished to make way for the current Toronto City Hall. Manning Chambers was built for and named after former mayor Alexander Manning.

Four gargoyles were placed on the corners of the Clock Tower in 1899, but they were removed to the effects of the weather on the sandstone carvings in 1938. In 2002, bronze casts of the gargoyles were reinstalled. The replicas are not duplicates as the original designs were lost. The gargoyles are similar to those on the Peace Tower in Ottawa.

Two grotesques and antique lampposts at the base of the grand staircase inside were removed in 1947 and sold. They were reclaimed by the City and reinstalled in the 1980s.

In architecture, a gargoyle  is a carved or formed grotesque with a spout designed to convey water from a roof and away from the side of a building, thereby preventing rainwater from running down masonry walls and eroding the mortar between. Architects often used multiple gargoyles on buildings to divide the flow of rainwater off the roof to minimize the potential damage from a rainstorm. 

 this is the old gargoyle now lost
  entrance Column expressing the politicians of Toronto

When the building was complete, it became evident that Lennox had taken his revenge, in a notorious bit of Toronto design. There are a number of faces carved into the pillars at the top of the main stairs of the building, which lead up from Queen Street. 

 They are all, save one, comically grotesque figures, with exaggerated features, bulging eyes, and protruding tongues. It's said that Lennox had each one of these designed to represent one of the municipal officials who gave him a hard time. 

The one exception was a “self portrait” of Edward James Lennox, and was put in place to make him seem like the only respectable or intelligent figure when set amongst those who governed over us more than a century ago.

Referring to the building as “Old City Hall” is actually something of a misnomer. When Toronto was incorporated as a city in 1834, the early city council met in rented facilities on top of a former St. Lawrence Market building, on the southwest corner of King and Jarvis streets. In 1845, a new addition to the market was completed on the south side of Front Street, and the first purpose built City Hall was constructed on top of it. 

When the Queen Street City Hall opened up in 1899, this area above the market was abandoned, and left closed to the public for more than seventy years, until it reopened as a museum and gallery space. Known today as the Market Gallery, it holds about three different exhibitions each year, on the various cultural, historical and artistic artifacts that are held within Toronto's archives. 

 The Market Gallery is open from Tuesday to Saturday, from 10 o'clock in the morning to 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and admission is free, though donations to the work of the gallery are kindly accepted.  

The architect Edward James Lennox,

He had slaved for years to deliver what was undisputedly a magnificent City Hall, an ornate sandstone edifice on Queen St. W. with a 103-metre clock towering over Bay St.
But years later he was still fighting for tens of thousands owed for services rendered.

Let’s see, there were the three years of design work, 520 meetings at $10 a pop, photos for progress reports, supervision of “gangs of workmen,” and on and on, meticulously annotated in the final tally of $242,870.82.

Published on the front page of the Evening Star (later renamed the Toronto Daily Star) on Sept. 6, 1907, the statement was submitted eight years after the stout oak doors opened for business — a delay Lennox blamed on disputes with contractors.

Civic officials, who had already paid him $61,000, were “agog” at the outstanding amount, according to the Star. 

They refused to pay, Lennox sued and the case went to court. More than four years later, he abruptly accepted the city’s offer of $60,000. Tainted by acrimony and scandal, the birth of Toronto’s third City Hall was finally concluded.

 New  gargoyle at a lower quality of representation replaced on the building
  this is the old gargoyle now lost

New  gargoyle

Project Toronto Old City Hall Restoration

Materials Red Sandstone

Team Architect: +VG Architects( hard to identify)

Installer Clifford Restoration

A trough is cut in the back of the gargoyle and rainwater typically exits through the open mouth. Gargoyles are usually an elongated fantastic animal because the length of the gargoyle determines how far water is thrown from the wall. When Gothic flying buttresses were used, aqueducts were sometimes cut into the buttress to divert water over the aisle walls.

In October 1965 a delegation from Eaton’s department store proposed to buy the building for $8 million from Metro Toronto, who had purchased it from the city four years earlier. Eaton’s, encouraged by city planners, intended to transform the mega-block of Bay, Dundas, Yonge, and Queen into the Eaton Centre a complex of office towers, a hotel, shopping mall, and new flagship store. 

Officials on the project claimed that Old City Hall was “an insuperable barrier” which, no matter how much they tried, was a square peg in the plan. Their solution was to demolish all but the clock tower, as well as getting rid of nearby Church of the Holy Trinity because of the march of progress. 

While many politicians were dazzled by the plans—Swansea Reeve Lucien Kurata said it was “so gorgeous, it’s almost sexy”—public outcry arose. When revised plans called for the full demolition of Old City Hall to make room for the podium of the closest office tower, questions were raised. A lobby group, Friends of Old City Hall, formed, performing actions such as cleaning off a portion of soot to show the beauty of the original walls. 

Eaton’s suddenly cancelled the project in May 1967, blaming unreasonable municipal demands. John David Eaton, head of the retail empire, bitterly remarked to an associate “let’s walk across the street and tell [Mayor William] Dennison he can shove the Old City Hall up his ass.” 

Although it originally housed the Council Chamber, courtrooms, municipal and legal offices, the building now operates solely as a courthouse. The old city Council Chamber is now courtroom 110 and retains much of its turn-of-the-century decoration. 


Tuesday, June 6, 2017

North St. Lawrence Market dig Toronto Ontario Canada

“At least” five separate market buildings — constructed successively in 1820, 1831, 1851, 1904 and 1968 — have occupied the property, once abutting the Lake Ontario shoreline before landfill stretched the city farther south.

What was here before is not even in the public records.  We might assist to a intentional demolition of history on these lands.

The artifacts found range in size from a large stone sewer pipe that's about 10 metres long, to items as small as everyday eating utensils.

To date, the crew has exposed the massive foundations of three earlier market buildings as well as cellars used by butchers to store their produce, plus a range of artifacts, including sheep and cattle bones bearing saw marks, shards of pottery, meat hooks, clay pipes and a glass bottle produced for J.J. McLaughlin, the Toronto pharmacist who invented Canada Dry ginger ale in the 1890s.
In the construction trailer that serves as the project office, Robertson shows off a triangular shard of earthenware with a pale blue design found earlier this week — in all likelihood, a piece from a bowl or plate.

For decades, Toronto was notorious for demolishing heritage structures and allowing recognized archeological sites, such as the original parliament, to languish. That changed after council approved an ambitious archeological management plan in 2004. Since then, downtown projects have included the Georgian row house Bishop’s Block, on Wellington St., next to the Shangri-La Hotel; Toronto’s first General Hospital, on the site of what is now the TIFF Bell Lightbox; and the Stanley Barracks, next to the new hotel rising on the Canadian National Exhibition Grounds.

Last year, under a parking lot next to city hall slated to become home to a new $500-million provincial courthouse, a crew led by archeologist Holly Martelle found hundreds of thousands of artifacts from what would have been a dense immigrant enclave. Those discoveries included the foundations of a black church established in the 1840s by African Americans who fled slavery.

As with other excavations, the archeologists overseeing the dig will have to store the vast majority of the artifacts that aren’t exhibited. While city council last year adopted a policy to have archeological discoveries found in the city stored or displayed here, the bulk will remain under lock and key, as is the case with some 150,000 historical objects in two city warehouses. The continuing accumulation of such materials has prompted numerous calls for the establishment of a Toronto museum.

234 Bay Street Old Stock Exchange Building now Design Exchange Building

Also The 77 Wellington St. entrance is accessible.

In 1983 the Toronto Stock Exchange had abandoned its historic home of the last 46 years at 234 Bay Street. Olympia and York (O&Y) purchased the building which was designated a heritage property.

In return for the air rights to build an office tower on the site, O&Y agreed to retain and restore the building.
O&Y commissioned a study to consider the idea of using the trading floor as a public facility. The study indicated that Toronto designers would support a cultural design centre. In January 1986, a group of designers organized an event to lobby Toronto City Hall in support of the initiative. City officials recognized a body of ten citizens as “The Group for the Creation of a Design Centre in Toronto”, which was incorporated on February 6, 1987 and came to be known as the Design Exchange.

At the prompting of the citizens' group, city staff funded a study which determined that a design centre in the old Toronto Stock Exchange “was both possible and desirable.”

When was the Toronto Stock Exchange formed?
The Toronto Stock Exchange was formed in 1852. It merged with the Standard Stock and Mining Exchange in 1934. The official opening of its moderne-style building at 234 Bay Street took place on March 17, 1937. The Stock Exchange moved in 1983 to the corner of King and York Streets. The Bay Street building was incorporated intact into a highrise development and is now the Design Exchange, a museum of design.

Tenancy to 1983

Aboriginal Peoples
The region was populated by Indians of the Huron and Petun tribes until around 1600, when they withdrew to land south of Georgian Bay. The first European to stand on the shores of Lake Ontario in the vicinity of what is now Toronto was French explorer Etienne Brule in 1615. The Toronto region had been populated for at least ten thousand years before the arrival of Brule.
European Arrivals
In 1750 The French built Fort Toronto on the east bank of the Humber River; it was soon felt to be inadequate in comparison with British forts like Fort Oswego, so a larger French fort called Fort Rouille was built three miles east of the Humber, on the grounds of the present day Canadian National Exhibition.

In 1787 Lord Dorchester negotiated the Toronto Purchase, which transferred the title to a fourteen mile stretch of land along Lake Ontario from present day Scarborough to Etobicoke, and nearly 30 miles inland, from the Mississauga Indians to the British.

On July 30, 1793 John Graves Simcoe arrived at Toronto with his wife, Elizabeth, their servants, and members of the Queen's Rangers. A village and blockade was constructed between present day Queen and Bloor Streets, north of the area in question. At the first town meeting in July 1797, 241 inhabitants were enumerated. The initial population at York consisted of British officials and their families, soldiers, and a small assortment of labourers, storekeepers and craftsmen. By 1812, York had a population of a little over 700.

The area of Bay Street between Wellington and King was farmland.

Post 1812 Settlement

Toronto City Directories list the following tenants and year of residence:
#39 Bay Street (later #82) Francis Stanly
#41 (#84) Francis Boyd, John Boyd (Barrister and Attorney), William Boyd (Attorney)
#43 (#86) Hugh Boomer

#82 Chief Justice Sir JB Robinson
#84 Captain Francis Boyd, William Boyd (Solicitor)
#86 David S Keith (Plumber and gas fitter)

#82 Joseph Simpson (Manufacturer of Knitted Goods)
#84 GL Maddison (Insurance)
#86 N Strang (Second Hand Broker)

#82 Mrs M Whittemore (Widow of EF Whittemore)
#84 Harry Holman (Tailor)
#86 Robert York (Boarding House)

The Great Toronto Fire of 1904 devastated the area which was largely commercial warehouse property. 

According to the atlas of 1910, the properties at 82-86 Bay Street (which would become the Toronto Stock Exchange) were two full lots which backed onto Mincing Street (formerly Mincing Lane) and one half property facing Bay Street (#86)

Searching back issues of the Toronto Star beginning 1894, there is no mention of 234 Bay Street until 1928. At that time it was occupied by WR Houston & Co, Oils of Western Canada. 84 Bay Street is listed in a help wanted add for an office girl to report to AS Houston in 1920.

It is likely the renumbering occurred between those two mentions. 84 Bay Street was the location of McDonald Bullock & Co, investment bankers, in 1917. Mention of the building as "The Toronto Stock Exchange Building" occurs in 1916, prior to merging with Standard Mining Exchange.

The Standard Exchange was located on Richmond Street West at the time of the merger. Perhaps the combined exchange operated from the Richmond Street location during construction of the Bay Street facility. In 1903, 84 Bay was the location of the Davis and Henderson Lithographers.. By May 1910 the CH Westwood Manufacturing Company was doing business there making men's garters.

86 Bay Street was the location of Royal Securities Corporation Limited in 1914.

82 Bay Street was home to the Clavir Hat Company during the years 1918, 1919, and 1920.

Completion of the current building for the Toronto Stock Exchange was completed in 1937 and the TSE moved in in April of that year.

Because the TSE was not at this location it is unlikely that persons associated with the Exchange prior to that date would return post-death. Three is one notable exception. Lyndhurst Ogden, born 12 March 1847 at Isle of Man, came to Toronto in 1876 and was the secretery for the Standard Stock Exchange (TSE) for 33 years, retiring just before his death on 26 April 1915. He was also secretery of The Toronto Club. It is likely that he would continue to hold deep attachments to the TSE wherever it's location.

A full list of principles for the TSE from 1937-1983 is in development. So far, only one name has surfaced Arthur J Trebilcock was the executive manager of the TSE from 1936 to 1956. In 1956 he became its first paid president, and held the post in 1957 as well. He was also the first person to serve as president who was not a stock trader.

He was still living in March of 1969 when his wife died, but no obituary is found via standard sources. Ontario death records are held private for the previous 72 years so while it is likely that Mr Trebilcock has passed on, the date remains elusive.

Building Specifics
The current Design Exchange became home to the Toronto Stock Exchange in 1937 with the first day of trading at the location on March 20, 1937. The building was designed by Samuel Maw in consultation with George and Moorehouse. Artist Charles Comfort did the murals. The original trading floor was constructed from natural maple with black trim and treated to aid acoustics.

This was the first building in Toronto to have air conditioning.

A series of pneumatic tubes ran from the traders to the basement where they were delivered the changes to the person operating the ticker.


Year: 1937
Style: Art Deco (1918-1940)
Original Architect: George & Moorhouse

At the crossroads of multiple disciplines, from furniture and architecture to graphics and fashion, the education programs, talks, workshops and youth education initiatives.

These are all curated to reflect the popular zeitgeist and contemporary culture while demonstrating the relevance and importance of design to everyday life. In the heart of the financial district – the original home of the Toronto Stock Exchange – offers a modern Art Deco interior and architecture that conveys elegance and achievement.

A 1994 renovation by KPMB Architects thoughtfully updated the interior and kept the original murals by artist Charles F. Comfort and accents of warm wood and cool marble.

Toronto Stock Exchange (often abbreviated as TSX) is one of the world's largest stock exchanges. It is the ninth largest exchange in the world by market capitalization. Based in Toronto, it is owned by and operated as a subsidiary of the TMX Group for the trading of senior equities. A broad range of businesses from Canada and abroad are represented on the exchange. In addition to conventional securities, the exchange lists various exchange-traded funds, split share corporations, income trusts and investment funds. More mining and oil and gas companies are listed on Toronto Stock Exchange than any other stock exchange.

TMX Group Limited


Traded as TSX: X
Industry Financial services
Founded May 1, 2008
Headquarters Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Key people
Charles Winograd, Chairman
Lou Eccleston, CEO
Products Stock exchange, futures exchange, market data
Revenue $717.3 million (2014) 
Operating income
$278.6 million (2014) 
Net income
$100.5 million (2014) 
Total assets $10,160.3 billion (2014) 
Total equity $2,945.9 billion (2014)
Number of employees
1,400 (2014) 
Divisions Toronto Stock Exchange
TSX Venture Exchange
Montreal Exchange
 The facility stood empty from 1983 until renovations began in 1988. The Design Exchange moved in in 1994.

 This is a 3D printing sculpture