Tuesday, November 7, 2017

Dainty Tract York Regional Forest Ontario Canada

 The York Regional Forest is open to the public 365 days per year with no cost to enter. The York Regional Forest is made up of 2,300 hectares of protected land, located in different parts of the Region. Eighteen properties with more than 120 kilometres of trail are available to the public.

Dainty Tract is one of the trails available to the public. 15182 Mccowan Rd, Whitchurch-Stouffville, Ontario.

In the nineteenth century the Whitchurch landscape was subjected to heavy timbering to clear the land for cultivation.

As a result

“The open fields had become blowsand deserts, drifting sands had blocked roads, the split rail fences were soon buried, and on dry windy days
the whitchurch sky was yellow from blowing sand.” 
“Drinking water began to dry up and the number of birds, deer, fish, and other animals dwindled.”

“With the top soil gone, there was not enough available nutrient in the soil to support even grass.”

In hilly areas, the light soils were readily removed by water flow, the ground being gouged into ever deepening gullies. Sand-filled flash flood waters became common for every one downstream in the spring, while the same patch became a parched, waterless bake oven in the summer sun...
Whitchurch had become a wasteland...

Large volumes of Ontario’s softwood forest was shipped to Britain and the United States as square timber. Hardwoods were typically burned in piles to make potash. With the forest cleared, farming could commence.

Most farming activity was supported only for a few decades, the land had given out by the 1890s.Large areas of wasteland were created in the light sandy soils of Whitchurch Township and elsewhere in southern Ontario. The mistake: to farm the Oak Ridges Moraine.

Realizing the problem, many municipalities like Whitchurch paid landowners 25 cents a tree to start reforesting roadsides and gullies. In 1910 the York County council passed a resolution to consider the problem, but not much was done until 1920.

 By 1924 an agreement was struck between the County of York and the Province of Ontario where the County would purchase land, and Provincial foresters would plant and manage the forest.

York County purchased the first property for reforestation in 1922 from Ted Hollidge. It was 197 acres and cost a little more than $4,000. 

Trees were planted in 1924. Part of the deal was that Ted himself be the first caretaker for the emerging Vivian Forest. 

An additional 400 acres were purchased in 1924. By 1930, 710 acres of land had been reforested;by 1938, an additional 1,166 acres.

 A little more than 60 years after the first purchase, the public forests across York Region (York County became York Region in 1971) totaled 4,900 acres. 

The reasons for developing the forest were multi- faceted: the demonstration of wise land use, wood production, a decrease in run-off and erosion, an increase in stream flows during the summer months, and a reduction in stream siltation.

Now the sad story: The forests were managed through prescribed cuttings. Generally speaking, a third of the volume of the plantation is removed in the first thinning, and 10 years later it is again thinned. By the time of the final harvest, there are theoretically less than 200 trees per acre out of the original 800 or 1200 planted.

There is no respect for trees. They are just objects to be used. 
Prior to 1947, cutting resulted in only enough wood for internal needs and to supply a few local markets. For instance, in 1948 only 300 cords, or 25,000 cubic feet of wood were harvested from thinnings. These early sales proved unsatisfactory to the costs incurred. From 1949 onward, sales were in the form of pulpwood to the Ontario Paper Company. Second thinnings produced larger material by 1957, in which sales were focused toward product for pole barn construction. A profit was finally being realized, 33 years after the first tree was planted.

So the health of the environment is not so important only the profit is. So what is this Ontario paper company doing Flyer probably that are thrown  in the garbage the moment they are received.

The former York County forests were managed by the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests (now Ministry of Natural Resources) until 1998, when The Regional Municipality of York assumed full management responsibility for the forest.

 Today (2017), the York Regional Forest system is comprised of 22 tracts totaling over 5,700 acres, in four of the nine towns and cities in York Region. Whitchurch- Stouffville, with 11 public forest tracts including new acquisitions, claims 52% of the forest system, or roughly 3,000 acres.

About 10 years ago the red pine in some areas started to die out, generally called Red Pine Decline associated with two pathogens; both are a form of root rot and not easily controlled. The moss covered remains of red pine stumps and trunks are readily seen in areas of the forest. In recent years, the Region’s ash trees are under threat of being wiped out entirely as a result of the Emerald Ash Borer. All untreated ash trees are expected to die as a result of this infestation.

 These disease are the direct result of the logging trees. They did not learn yet to protect themselves against disease. They need more mature trees to learn from how to protect themselves against the cold and the disease.

So let-s be clear the management of the forest is cutting the trees in the forest for profit of those that cut the trees that they did not even plant it. That is why the trees are all very young.

Those that do not learn from the past tend to repeat it.

Tuesday, September 5, 2017

Nice, France Star fort Megalitic Structure

 Nice is one of the oldest human settlements in the world. Terra-Amata, an archaeological site dating from the Lower Palaeolithic age, is situated near Nice.

The first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back about 400,000 years;the Terra Amata archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire, construction of houses, and flint findings dated to around 230,000 years ago. Nice (Nicaea) was probably founded around 350 BC by the Greeks of Massalia (Marseille), and was given the name of Nikaia (Νίκαια) in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians; Nike (Νίκη) was the Greek goddess of victory.

 The city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast; but it had an important rival in the Roman town of Cemenelum, which continued to exist as a separate city until the time of the Lombard invasions. The ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez, now a district of Nice.

The Hotel Negresco is a hotel and site of the restaurant Le Chantecler, located on the Promenade des Anglais on the Baie des Anges in Nice, France. It was named after Henri Negresco (1868–1920), who had the palatial hotel constructed in 1912. In keeping with the conventions of the times, when the Negresco opened in 1913 its front opened on the side opposite the Mediterranean sea.

In the 7th century, Nice joined the Genoese League formed by the towns of Liguria. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens; but in 859 and again in 880 the Saracens pillaged and burned it, and for most of the 10th century remained masters of the surrounding country.

During the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, and both the King of France and the Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of this it maintained its municipal liberties. During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence, but it regained its independence even though related to Genoa.

The medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town. The landward side was protected by the River Paillon, which was later covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis.

The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle Hill. Another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill. Engravings suggest that the port area was also defended by walls.
Under Monoprix in Place de Garibaldi are excavated remains of a well-defended city gate on the main road from Turin.

Henri Negresco, born Alexandru Negrescu

 was the son of an innkeeper. He was educated and worked as a confectioner at the luxurious Casa Capșa in Bucharest, Romania, left home at the age of 25 (earlier sources mentioned 15, but it is not really possible, he finished the military service in Romania and there is at least one photo with him in Bucharest at older age) going first to Paris then to the French Riviera where he became very successful.

As director of the Municipal Casino in Nice, he had the idea to build a sumptuous hotel of quality that would attract the wealthiest of clients. After arranging the financing, he hired the great architect of the "café society" Édouard-Jean Niermans to design the hotel and its now famous pink dome.

The spectacular Baccarat 16,309-crystal chandelier in the Negresco's Royal Lounge was commissioned by Czar Nicholas II, who due to the October revolution was unable to take delivery.
Contrary to popular belief, the large window of the Royal Lounge – listed as an Historical Monument – is not the work of Gustave Eiffel. Eiffel never worked at the Negresco; instead it is entirely the work of Edouard-Jean Niermans.
Henri Negresco faced a downturn in his affairs when World War I broke out two years after he opened for business. His hotel was converted to a hospital. By the end of the war, the number of wealthy visitors to the Riviera had dropped off to the point that the hotel was in severe financial difficulty. Seized by creditors, the Negresco was sold to a Belgian company. Henri Negresco died a few years later in Paris at the age of 52.

Le Negresco seen at sunrise

Main hall
Over the years, the hotel had its ups and downs, and in 1957, it was sold to the Augier family. Madame Jeanne Augier reinvigorated the hotel with luxurious decorations and furnishings, including an outstanding art collection and rooms with mink bedspreads. Noted for its doormen dressed in the manner of the staff in 18th-century elite bourgeois households, complete with red-plumed postilion hats, the hotel also offers renowned gourmet dining at the Regency-style Le Chantecler restaurant.
Le Chantecler has two stars in the Guide Michelin and 15/20 in Gault Millau. It has previously been under the leadership of famous chefs such as Bruno Turbot and Alain Llorca, who left to take over the equally fabled Moulin de Mougins. The restaurant features a fabulous interior with gobelins and roccoco furniture in untraditional colourings of pink, lime, lemon, cerulean etc.

In 2003, the Hotel Negresco was listed by the government of France as a National Historic Building and is a member of Leading Hotels of the World. The Negresco has a total of 119 guest rooms plus 22 suites.

In contemporary times

The fifth floor of the hotel is for "VVIP" guests. The acronym stands for "very, very important persons".The staff wears costumes based upon the 18th century. The hotel has a private beach, which is located across the street from the facility. It is also where the gym is located.
In the wake of the 2016 Nice attack, the hotel's main hall was used to triage wounded civilians.

Coat of arms


The coat of arms of Nice appeared for the first time in a copy of the Regulations of Amadeus VIII, probably written around 1430. The Nice is symbolised by a red eagle on white background, placed on three mountains, which can be described in French heraldic language as "d'argent à une aigle de gueule posée sur trois coupeaux". ("Upon argent a red eagle is displayed, posed upon three mounds.") The arms have only undergone minor changes: the eagle has become more and more stylised, it now "wears" a coronet for the County of Nice, and the three mountains are now surrounded by a stylised sea.

The presence of the eagle, an imperial emblem, shows that these arms are related to the power of the House of Savoy. The eagle standing over the three hills is a depiction of Savoy, referring to its domination over the country around Nice. The combination of white and red (argent and gules) is a reference to the colours of the flag of Savoy. The three mountains symbolize a territorial honor, without concern for geographic realism.


 Star Fort in Nice Ancient Megalithic Site ( real age is not really known - 5000 years probably)

 Megalitic structure reused.

 Ancient Megalithic Site

 Survivor Style Building ( Colonial Building) How old is really ?

 Hotel Negresco ( built by a Romanian )  - Romanian Tourists are not welcomed to visit the entrance they are chased  by the hotel management

Hotel Negresco

What kind of car is that?